The first sentence has the meaning of how we as people are built for success or for failure.
The second sentence has the meaning of how his “guardian angel” changed his path in life and made him go in a different direction
The author uses the metaphor of storms and water to foreshadow events later to come. Shown “-the last effort made by the spirit of preservation to avert the storm that was even then hanging in the stars and ready to envelop me.” This shows that his path was changed as an attempt to shield him from the incoming raft of the “storm” which is lingering above him. This could have the meaning of the stars being the future and the storm which has a negative connotation of being dangerous and uncontrollable. This could indicate that there is an uncontrollable force waiting in the future of Dr Frankenstein and if he doesn’t choose the right path it could be deadly.
When the author states, ” It was thus that I was to be taught to associate evil with their prosecution, happiness with their disregard.” I believe what she is saying is that evil is associated with prosecution, but happiness is accompanied by ignorance. An evil being can only be put into harm or prosecuted, but for someone to find happiness in their life they must be ignorant to the heartache and truth of reality.
The author says in the final paragraph, “It was a strong effort of the spirit of good, but it was ineffectual. Destiny was too potent, and her immutable laws had decreed my utter and terrible destruction.” This shows that the “guardian angel” although pulling in the direction of safety was unable to do so. Dr Frankenstein’s “Destiny” which has the connotation with fate. Both words can mean that an uncontrollable force from the future is dictating what is happening in the present. Destiny “forced” the Dr into the path of an unchangeable command of destruction.